Spesmilo - BitcoinWiki

Storing your coins safely while not risking loss of keys

This was originally an answer to a question that was asked here, but OP deleted their post.
This might help some newbies (especially the multisig edit at the end), so I want to make sure it's still accessible here.
The original question was whether the Electrum wallet stores a Trezor's private key when using a passphrase.
OP noticed that their Trezor wouldn't connect to their Electrum wallet when entering a different passphrase than they used when creating the wallet. Thus, OP (likely) assumed that the wallet stored the private key, as it somehow knew that a different private key was now used.
Here is my original answer (with some modifications):
IMPORTANT: I'm assuming here that you connected your Trezor by choosing the "hardware wallet" option in Electrum, rather than giving Electrum your 12/24 seed words.
TL;DR: No, your coins are safe :)
I'm assuming by passphrase) you mean the 25th (or 13th) word. When you have this feature enabled, a private key gets generated every time you enter a passphrase. When you enter the same passphrase you used to create the wallet, the wallet with your funds shows up.
Whenever you enter something different, a different private key is generated on your Trezor. This allows you to have multiple different wallets, for example by choosing the passphrases "First Wallet", "Second Wallet", "Third Wallet", or a secret wallet with a secret passphrase.
So whenever you enter a new passphrase when connecting your Trezor to Electrum, the Trezor will send a new public key to Electrum. Electrum will then derive addresses from this public key and check those for balances. It won't find any, as you used a new passphrase.
EDIT: I just realized that you said your wallet doesn't connect to Electrum when you use a different passphrase. This is simply because Electrum doesn't receive the correct public key from the Trezor and therefore Electrum thinks it's a different wallet (which it is).
When you enter the passphrase you used during creation of your wallet, the Trezor will send your actual public key to Electrum, which will then find addresses with balances, which it will show to you. EDIT (to clarify): Connecting your Trezor after creating the wallet is only necessary to send funds or verify addresses, as the public key is already stored in the wallet.dat.
The only thing Electrum actually stores is the public key, which can only be used to look at your Bitcoin, not to move them. You might want to keep this public key a secret as well though, since it links all your funds to you. This is what Electrum stores in the wallet.dat file, which you can just encrypt by choosing a password for it.
Well done using a passphrase by the way! Should someone get their hands on your Trezor, a sophisticated attacker can get the secret key off the device in 15 minutes. Using a passphrase makes this attack almost useless, as the both secret key AND the passphrase are needed to move your funds, and the passphrase is not stored on the device. A passphrase also allows you to hide funds from potential robbers that force you to unlock your wallet.
You can do this by activating the passphrase feature and sending your funds to a wallet with a secret passphrase (do NOT lose this, as losing your passphrase renders your funds inaccessible). Afterwards, you can safely deactivate the passphrase feature, so the device doesn't even ask for one should you get robbed. Simply reactivate it when you need to access your funds.
EDIT: Should you be worried that you might forget your passphrase, you should look into multisig wallets. Depending on how you set this up, you can make it more secure against theft and less likely for you to lose access to your funds.
Say for example you get four wallets: two hardware wallets, a well-protected (airgapped) laptop with Electrum, and a secure mobile wallet that allows for multisig (like Fully Noded).
You can then create a 2-of-4 multisig wallet that requires you to sign transactions with any two of these four wallets.
The increase in security comes from the fact that an attacker now needs full access to two of your devices (or their stored private keys) at once.
At the same time, the fact that you yourself now also need access to only half of your devices means that in the event of a total loss of one (or even two) of them, you can still move your funds to a new wallet.
As long as you do regular checks (e.g. first day of each month), ensuring that you still have access to all your devices' stored private keys, you can always catch a loss of keys and fix this without losing funds (by creating a new multisig wallet and sending the funds there).
This allows you to use a passphrase on your wallets without storing it anywhere physically or digitally. This would usually be very risky, as forgetting the passphrase would lead to a loss of funds, but this risk is now close to eliminated.
(The following part was not in the original answer)
Some IMPORTANT general secruity tips:
  1. Consider including trusted friends and/or family members as co-signers for a multisig wallet. This ensures that it's not even possible for you alone to hand over funds to an attacker. Depending on your level of trust, you might want to make sure that your co-signers can't collaborate to steal your funds (if you include 3 people, create at least a 4-of-n multisig). You could also deliberately make it possible for all or even just some of your co-signers to move your funds (3 co-signers, 3(or less)-of-n multisig) to make sure your funds aren't lost should pass away unexpectedly.
  2. Consider running your own full node and Electrum server (also check the alternatives), which you connect your Electrum wallet to. This ensures that you don't send your public key to anyone else. If someone knows your public key, they know how much BTC you own, making you a potential target.
  3. Always encrypt your wallet.dat (or whatever you called your wallet file), even if it's a watch-only wallet. This protects your public key (see 1. for why you want that).
  4. Create watch-only wallets: Use an airgapped) device to create a wallet with Electrum (make sure to back up the seed phrase) and export the public key. Then create a new watch-only wallet on another device (like your everyday laptop) with that public key to be able to check your funds. To create the initial wallet, you can also use any other hard- or software wallet that allows you to export the master public key.
  5. Hide, or (when using a hardware wallet with a passphrase) even delete your watch-only wallets. Hiding your funds makes you less of a target. When using a hardware wallet, recreating the watch-only wallet is fast and simple, so you don't need to store it if you don't want to check your funds every day. Note that this approach doesn't help much when you don't use a passphrase, as an attacker will obviously check the passphrase-less wallet no matter what.
  6. Keep some funds on your hardware wallet(s). If an attackers sees funds on the wallet(s), they might not force you to enter a passphrase or ask if you have any multisig wallets (lying under pressure is hard).
  7. Hide all your wallets in different places. If someone sees that you have multiple wallets lying around, they might realize you have a multisig wallet.
  8. Don't risk a robber getting (for example) two keys to your 2-of-4 multisig wallet and then racing them to move your funds with the other two keys when they leave. They're gonna come back and be pissed. If it comes to this, you need protection until the robber is caught. STAY SAFE!
  9. The easiest way to solve a problem is to never have it. Don't make yourself a target. If nobody even suspects that you have a multisig (or any wallet at all), they're probably not gonna look for it.
Please correct any mistakes you find and I will edit my post. I will also gladly add more tips to the list. I will of course credit anyone who helps.
Tip for devs who want something cool and important to work on: Make the creation and usage of multisig wallets as noob-friendly as possible. If someone expresses worries about losing access to their funds by forgetting the seed phrase, wallet pin, etc. (someone in my family actually brought this up to me), multisig wallets are the perfect solution as they add redundancy.
submitted by Fittiboy to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Calculate txn_id from raw txn_hex

I'm trying to calculate a txn_id from raw txn_hex. The procedure works fine for legacy TXNs but gets non-expected results on Segwit TXNs. I compared this snippet of code to what txn_id was produced by Electrum and the blockchain.com TXN decoder:
  1. Take in TXN in hex
  2. Convert the hex to binarray
  3. Double hash binarray
  4. Reverse the resultant digest because of endianness
  5. Display in hex.
t0 is my legacy testnet TXN and t1 is my segwit testnet TXN.
Thoughts?

UPDATE

Found the relevant source in Electrum transaction.py:1036
Basically you strip the flags and tx_witnesses listed in the wiki spec
```python

!/usbin/env python3

[repo] https://github.com/brianddk/reddit ... python/txn_hash.py

[ref] https://www.reddit.com/g4hvyf

from hashlib import sha256
def txid(tx): bin = bytes.fromhex(tx) txid = sha256(sha256(bin).digest()).digest()[::-1].hex() return txid

Raw Legacy

t0 = ('0200000001cd3b93f5b24ae190ce5141235091cd93fbb2908e24e5b9ff6776ae' 'c11b0e04e5000000006b4830450221009f156db3585c19fe8e294578edbf5b5e' '4159a7afc3a7a00ebaab080dc25ecb9702202581f8ae41d7ade2f06c9bb9869e' '42e9091bafe39290820438b97931dab61e140121030e669acac1f280d1ddf441' 'cd2ba5e97417bf2689e4bbec86df4f831bf9f7ffd0fdffffff010005d9010000' '00001976a91485eb47fe98f349065d6f044e27a4ac541af79ee288ac00000000')

Raw Segwit

t1 = ('0200000000010100ff121dd31ead0f06e3014d9192be8485afd6459e36b09179' 'd8c372c1c494e20000000000fdffffff013ba3bf070000000017a914051877a0' 'cc43165e48975c1e62bdef3b6c942a38870247304402205644234fa352d1ddbe' 'c754c863638d2c26abb9381966358ace8ad7c52dda4250022074d8501460f4e4' 'f5ca9788e60afafa1e1bcbf93e51529defa48317ad83e069dd012103adc58245' 'cf28406af0ef5cc24b8afba7f1be6c72f279b642d85c48798685f86200000000')

UPDATE Raw Segwit with flags and tx_witnesses stripped

t2 = ('02000000' '0100ff121dd31ead0f06e3014d9192be8485afd6459e36b09179' 'd8c372c1c494e20000000000fdffffff013ba3bf070000000017a914051877a0' 'cc43165e48975c1e62bdef3b6c942a3887' '00000000')
print(f"t0: {txid(t0)}\nt1: {txid(t1)}\nt2: {txid(t2)}")

TXN_IDs from the above python

t0: cb33472bcaed59c66fae30d7802b6ea2ca97dc33c6aad76ce2e553b1b4a4e017

t1: b11fdde7e3e635c7f15863a9399cca42d46b5a42d87f4e779dfd4806af2401ce

t2: d360581ee248be29da9636b3d2e9470d8852de1afcf3c3644770c1005d415b30

TXN_IDs from Electrum

t0: cb33472bcaed59c66fae30d7802b6ea2ca97dc33c6aad76ce2e553b1b4a4e017

t1: d360581ee248be29da9636b3d2e9470d8852de1afcf3c3644770c1005d415b30

```
submitted by brianddk to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Trezor Troubleshooting Guide

I've noticed some redundancy in some of the issues raised on this subreddit, thought I'd start a generic troubleshooting thread of what I've found useful. I'd appreciate any suggestions mods or other experts might have.

I - Prerequisite

  1. Read the FAQ
  2. Read the Users manual
  3. Read the Developers guide
  4. Search the Wiki
  5. Try the trezor Troubleshooter

II - Trezor connectivity / stuck spinning circle

  1. Try different cable / USB port / computer
  2. Try without crappy Antivirus software.
  3. Manually add the bootloader registry value just to be paranoid.
  4. Install WinUSB driver with Zadig.
  5. Try disabling browser extensions / ad-blockers.
  6. Try Chrome Guest Mode (easiest way to disable extensions)
  7. Try different browser (Chrome / Chromium / Firefox / Brave)
  8. Try WebUSB
  9. Try Android
  10. Try VirtualBox
  11. Try old-wallet.trezor.io
  12. Try beta-wallet.trezor.io
  13. Try beta-wallet.trezor.io/next

III - Updated FW, coins are gone

  1. Try Legacy Account section.
  2. Did you use the right seed?
  3. Did you use the right passphrase?
  4. Did you enter the recover seed words in the order the Trezor asked you to (hint: not first to last)?
  5. Did you verify that your recovery seed words are in the word list?
  6. Did you check all accounts (click add account) for transactions, or check all MEW ETH accounts (next page) as well?
  7. Did you check your transaction history (Legacy and Segwit) to see if anyone moved coins while you were dormant?
  8. Did you regularly do a dry-run recover to verify that you actually possess the recovery seed that the Trezor is operating with?
  9. Check to see if your brother-in-law found your seed and stole your coins.
  10. Check to see if the digital copy of your seed was hacked.

IV - Can't / Don't want to update FW.

  1. Try performing a dry-run to ensure you have the right seed.
  2. Say a prayer and hope you have the right passphrase.
  3. Use an old version of Electrum / MyCrypto / MEW to see if you can find TXN history.
  4. Use an old version of Electrum / MyCrypto / MEW to move most funds.
  5. Use an old version of trezorctl to move the other funds.
  6. Buy a second Trezor and update that.

V - I'm new to this, How should I backup my seed / passphrase.

  1. Make it simple, your kids / kin may be the ones doing the recovery.
  2. Make it secure in a lockbox or safe or something reasonable.
  3. Make it accessible in case there is market volatility.
  4. Make it resilient and redundant in case there is a fire / zombie apocalypse.
  5. Don't make it digital, hackers are smarter than you are.

VI - I forgot my PIN now I can't access my device

  1. Say a prayer and hope you have the right seed.
  2. Say a prayer and hope you have the right passphrase.
  3. Wipe your device then recover with the seed / passphrase to reset PIN.
  4. Don't forget again.

VII - I forgot my seed / passphrase, what now

  1. Nothing, you effectively put physical currency in an incinerator, no getting it back.
  2. Realize that you've learned a valuable lesson that will serve you well in the future.
  3. Advocate to others the importance of following section [V] above.

VIII - I want support for CrappyForkCoin and I want it now!

  1. Figure out what the fork_id is for CrappyForkCoin and write your own coin JSON file.
  2. Use your JSON file to compile your own CrappyForkCoin trezor FW.
  3. Flash your CrappyForkCoin trezor FW to your personal trezor.
  4. Use trezorctl to make CrappyForkCoin transactions.
  5. Read the wiki on how to add coins just to make sure.
submitted by brianddk to TREZOR [link] [comments]

I propose ₷ or the "Spesmilo" as the satoshi unit symbol

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spesmilo
Advantages:
-S symbol with an m looking part representing money
-already in fonts everywhere
-easy to write
-used as a decimal currency in the past
-unique
-as Manticlops mentions looks like a black swan and bitcoin just might be one
submitted by randbtcacct to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Live USB Linux Distribution

I'm throwing together a USB Linux distribution that includes essential tools for bitcoin-related tasks.
My current list of tools is as follows:
Any suggestions?
EDIT: Formatting
EDIT 2: An up-to-date list can be found on github
submitted by zdwolfe1 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Electrum security/privacy model?

The Electrum homepage states that Electrum is:
Low trust: Information received from the servers is verified using SPV. Servers are authenticated using SSL [my emphasis]
https://electrum.org/index.html
However, I'm having a hard time finding documentation on how Electrum servers work and more specifically how they implement Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) as defined in Satoshi's white paper.
The Bitcoin Wiki states:
ThomasV claims that "Electrum, it is doing SPV since 2012".
https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Thin_Client_Security#Electrum
I found a conversation between Greg Maxwell and Mike Hearn from late 2012. One of the messages included this passage:
I'm concerned about how the particular security model of electrum is being described; or rather— not being described. The electrum website appears to have no security discussion beyond platitudes like "Secure: Your private keys are not shared with the server. You do not have to trust the server with your money.", "No scripts: Electrum does not download any script at runtime. A compromised server cannot compromise your client."
http://sourceforge.net/p/bitcoin/mailman/message/30108843/
Later Mike writes that he was able to contact ThomasV with his concerns, and that progress was made in addressing them.
A late 2013 question posted to Bitcoin StackExchange raises similar questions:
http://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/16629/is-electrums-spv-thin-client-implementation-not-p2p-as-opposed-to-multibits
The answers seemed confusing at best.
I'm pretty clear on how SPV is supposed to work, but so far the documentation I've found suggests that Electrum does not fit the description.
Electrum clients apparently connect to a single trusted server. It's unclear to what extent that server logs traffic, how/if Bloom filters are used to increase privacy, or even how the client proves that transactions coming from the server are in fact in the the block chain.
Can anyone point me to some technical documentation on the Electrum security/privacy model?
I've seen this source repository (not sure it's the right one):
https://github.com/spesmilo/electrum-server
It's sparsely documented, there's no test suite to speak of, and there seems to be far too little code for a full SPV implementation.
Edit: after reading responses so far and digging around some more, it appears that Electrum is doing SPV as indicated in the Wiki. There seem to be two main differences between Electrum and BitcoinJ (another SPV implementation used in MultiBit and other wallets):
  1. Electrum clients connect to a single trusted server chosen by default at random from a list posted to irc. BitcoinJ nodes connect to multiple peers and compare responses to detect withholding attacks.
  2. BitcoinJ nodes use Bloom filters and Electrum does not. This feature is intended to obfuscate the exact transactions being requested by a node so as to avoid leaking the wallet's private public keys/addresses to peers.
Under both systems, the client obtains block headers, using Merkle roots/chains to match received transactions to the containing blocks.
submitted by BobAlison to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Electrum 2.0 has been tagged | Thomas Voegtlin | Mar 01 2015

Thomas Voegtlin on Mar 01 2015:
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA1
Dear Bitcoin devs,
I just tagged version 2.0 of Electrum:
https://github.com/spesmilo/electrum/tree/2.0
The electrum.org website will be updated later today. The release
notes are a bit dense, due to the large amount of changes and new
features in this release. In the coming weeks we will be adding more
detailed documentation to the wiki and to the website.
There has been a very long hiatus in Electrum releases, because it
took me a lot of time to decide about the new seed derivation method
and wallet structure. Now that this part is done, I hope that we will
resume to a faster release pace.
I would like to thank all the people who contributed to this release,
developers, beta testers, but also people from this list who provided
useful feedback.
Cheers,
Thomas
RELEASE-NOTES

Release 2.0

paper.
phrase includes a version number, that refers to the wallet
structure. The version number also serves as a checksum, and it
will prevent the import of seeds from incompatible wallets. Old
Electrum seeds are still supported.
and use a gap limit of 20.
P2SH addresses ("2 of 2", "2 of 3").
transactions, that includes the BIP32 master public key and
derivation needed to sign inputs. Serialized transactions can be
sent to cosigners or to cold storage using QR codes (using Andreas
Schildbach's base 43 idea).
"2 of 3" multisig wallets and Google Authenticator. Note that
wallets protected by this service can be deterministically restored
from seed, without Trustedcoin's server.
wallets, to send and receive partially signed transactions.
window that pops up if you click on the QR code
outputs, and raw hexadecimal scripts.
start the daemon if it is not already running, and the GUI will
connect to it. The daemon can serve several clients. It times out
if no client uses if for more than 5 minutes.
keys. A watching-only wallet is created by entering a list of
addresses in the wizard dialog.
wallet files cannot be read by older versions of Electrum. Old
wallet files will be converted to the new format; this operation
may take some time, because public keys will be derived for each
address of your wallet.
the command line:
encrypt
decrypt
stable. Another script was added to Android, called Authenticator,
that works completely offline: it reads an unsigned transaction
shown as QR code, signs it and shows the result as a QR code.
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LM+2MgKJOWv+JpHQCDp3XwAXX62LLsS2BjdK1Jt6OpGA6IuVQGBSaTIn5K81S+Yh
M6RDKbP3kObYQ+bzLvtWrzgUD3sdht/V8L5ZPS3+Jibvmhae2zRrm/YpJZ77Yjd4
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NMrYqnSy0+tCEOXHrpCYhqogyzzdjOlv0gWKqB2uSkO5TkEHv2eyHeiZttAn11qO
sb85q/k0kYQBZZEvKJ9022eyKHjejDhQjKsCVIHhb81BJ1QYnZFIxBiKkVMxf0u5
sT2TTi18eOrYCUGD2WJ+ALyI1zN1sHO0/sn5+XzlC0jg+1KUXoo0j8NYnzmHb0Yx
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original: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-March/007620.html
submitted by bitcoin-devlist-bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

03-05 15:02 - 'Stealth addresses are still around and are being supported, but not directly by all of the ~half dozen Bitcoin frameworks (e.g., **[link][ *bitcoin* | *libbitcoin* | *btcsuite* | *bitpay* | *bitcoinj* | *spesmilo*] written in...' by /u/greatskaht removed from /r/Bitcoin within 7-12min

'''
Stealth addresses are still around and are being supported, but not directly by all of the ~half dozen Bitcoin frameworks (e.g., *[link]2 [ *bitcoin | libbitcoin | btcsuite | bitpay | bitcoinj | spesmilo] written in various programming languages. Stealth transactions protect the privacy of transaction recipients while mixing protects the privacy of transaction senders. It is worth noting that a Bitcoin stealth payment effectively requires 2 transactions on "the Blockchain" to complete a handshake so the recipient can later spend the stealth transaction funds sent. This requires the recipient's wallet to scan the Blockchain which is computationally time consuming. See [Stealth Address]1 to quickly learn more.
Speaking unofficially on the behalf of the libbitcoin effort, framework support for stealth addresses is still alive in v3.0. It is however, a whole different matter for wallets to utilize frameworks that support stealth transactions.
On the client side, the bitcoin-explorer (bx) command line interface is production ready (but not not for stealth address multisig support) see the image at [link]3 for framework support.
The libbitcoin server v3.0 ([link]4 ) is being refactored by Eric V. has taken shape, and is approaching completion for an official release. This new server indexes all spends, addresses and stealth payments in a in an operating system's memory-mapped file system - is definitely cutting edge work.
'''
Context Link
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: greatskaht
1: mo*ero.*tackexchange*****qu*s*io*s/1500/*hat**s-*-steal*h-add*ess*150*#*506 2: https://github.com/** 3: https://github.com/libbitcoin/libbitcoin-explorewiki/Stealth-Commands 4: https://github.com/libbitcoin/libbitcoin-server
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

UK Bitcoin users, what is your preferred method of converting Bitcoins into GBP and vice versa.

On a little looking about Britcoin.com seems to be one of the only GBP:BC sites that seems trustworthy,
"My name is Amir Taaki. I have been involved in bitcoin development for the past 8 months and have been one of its few active developers. You can see my posts at the bitcoin forums under the name genjix where I have a solid reputation. I have developed open source software for: this exchange, a bitcoin stock market exchange, a bitcoin client (Spesmilo) and others.
For a list of my current projects please visit Bitcoin Consulancy's wiki page.
Britcoin.co.uk is my decision to provide those living in the UK with a free exchange in order to promote awareness in the UK and allow UK residents to not miss out on the benefits of using bitcoins and being part of this great social change!"
Has anyone here got experience with them or any other UK Bitcoin trader that they can share?
edit: Spelling
submitted by Devlin1991 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Garrison's NCLEX Tutoring - YouTube

Spesmilo is a Python-based RPC front-end for bitcoind/Bitcoin-Qt, which is no longer maintained or active. Reported to be broken as-of bitcoind version 0.6. Principal authors: genjix and Luke-Jr An epic collection of practical resources for using Bitcoin. Running Bitcoin: Tools, Apps and Guides 34 minute read On this page. You MUST Do Your Own Research Spesmilo (1907 - Erster Weltkrieg) in der Esperanto-Bewegung ₶ Livre Tournois, verwendet im mittelalterlichen Frankreich 𐆚 Als Münze während des Römischen Reiches und der Römischen Republik verwendet 𐆖 Denar-Münze, die im antiken Rom von 211 v. Chr. Bis zum 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr. Verwendet wurde 𐆙 From Bitcoin Wiki. Jump to: navigation, search. Python-based RPC front-end for bitcoind/Bitcoin-Qt, which is no longer maintained or active. Reported to be broken as-of bitcoind version 0.6. Principal authors: genjix and Luke-Jr. Contents. 1 Features; 2 Current version (0.0.1.beta1) 2.1 Gentoo install; 2.2 Quick start (from source) 3 External Links; Features. Multilingual: American, Dutch ... How to buy Bitcoin? There are many ways to buy Bitcoin cryptocurrency, with debit or credit card, PayPal, online on cryptocurrency exchange, with bank transfers and etc.It's difficult to say what is the best way to buy Bitcoin. After the opening Bitcoin address-account you can start buying coins.

[index] [11812] [33567] [26385] [9972] [33505] [16860] [39289] [42844] [32060] [41439]

Garrison's NCLEX Tutoring - YouTube

For tutoring please call 856.777.0840 I am a registered nurse who helps nursing students pass their NCLEX. I have been a nurse since 1997. I have worked in a lot of nursing fields and I truly love ... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube.

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